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 Enzymes in Industry

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PostSubject: Enzymes in Industry   Mon Sep 20, 2010 9:07 pm

We will see that many different enzymes are produced in our digestive systems to help with the breakdown of food. Enzymes are also used by humans during many different industrial processes, for example, in the pharmaceutical, food and clothing industries.

Your task is to firstly read pages 34-35 of the textbook for some background information. Then you must describe the use of one enzyme in industry. You must not choose the same enzyme as anyone else in your class so please check all other responses before you begin.

Please write a summary of at leat 150 words on this enzyme. You must include information about;

- What the enzyme does
- Where the enzyme comes from
- The advantages of using this enzyme


You must provide a reference for your main source of information. This must not be Wikipedia!!!

Good Luck and remember that this material may be tested.

DUE DATE: Your second class during week 29 (11/10/10)[u] Question
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Andres ledermann



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PostSubject: andres ledermann ``work´´   Thu Oct 07, 2010 8:29 pm

I chose the enzyme catalase. This enzyme is used for the make of wound dressings and other amazing objects. Catalase haves an amazing reaction on this dressings, it converts hydrogen peroxide in this dressings to oxygen and water. Catalase has one of the highest turnover numbers of all enzymes; one molecule of catalase can convert millions of molecules of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen per second. This dressing heals and protects the injury. Catalase is a common enzyme founded nearly all the living organisms that are exposed to oxygen. This enzyme catalase haves an amazing advantage, that is centred on its amazing speed. I’ve said this because it heals very fast with the oxygen. This advantage is used on medicine because of the healing and has produced amazing result on the improving and less infections. Catalase is very useful on containing blood of infections and is a little cure on simple infections.
A.L
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Palmaa



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PostSubject: Biology Work- Lipase   Tue Oct 12, 2010 1:53 pm

Lipases are used to break down milk fats and give characteristics flavors to cheeses. Stronger flavoured cheeses, for example, the italian cheese, Romano, are prepared using lipases. The flavor comes from the free fatty acids produced when milk fats are hydrolyzed. Animal lipases are obtained from kid, calf and lamb, while microbial lipase is derived by fermentation with the fungal species Mucor meihei. Although microbial lipases are available for cheese-making, they are less specific in what fats they hydrolyze, while the animal enzymes are more partial to short and medium-length fats. Hydrolysis of the shorter fats is preferred because it results in the desairable taste of many cheeses. Hydrolysis of the longer chain fatty acids can result in either soapines, or no flavour at all. In conclusion this enzyme gives us the advantage of giving diferent kinds of flavour to many kinds of cheeses.

B.P
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Palmaa



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PostSubject: Lipase   Tue Oct 12, 2010 1:58 pm

Lipases are used to break down milk fats and give characteristics flavours to cheeses. Stronger flavoured cheeses, for example, the italian cheese, Romano, are prepared using lipases. The flavour comes from the free fatty acids produced when milk fats are hydrolyzed. Animal lipases are obtained from kid, calf and lamb, while microbial lipase is derived by fermentation with the fungal species Mucor meihei. Although microbial lipases are available for cheese-making, they are less specific in what fats they hydrolyze, while the animal enzymes are more partial to short and medium-length fats. Hydrolysis of the shorter fats is preferred because it results in the desairable taste of many cheeses. Hydrolysis of the longer chain fatty acids can result in either soapines, or no flavour at all. In conclusion this enzyme gives us the advantage of giving diferent kinds of flavour to many kinds of cheeses.

B.P
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Jon Walbaum



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PostSubject: Re: Enzymes in Industry   Tue Oct 12, 2010 3:16 pm

Amylase can be found in human saliva and the pancreas, as well as in some bacteria and plants, such as barley. Amylase is used in the making of bread. It breaks down starch into sugar. This is done so that yeast can then react with the sugars to have its own products which rise to become bread. Yeast has amylase in it but it isn't enough to break down the sugars in bread and therefore not economically viable. To make this process faster, malted barley is added to the complex sugar solution, as this substance has higher quantities of amylase, the break-down process is quicker. Amylase is also found in clothing and dishwasher detergents to dissolve starch stains, therefore removing them from where it was.

http://www.mapsenzymes.com/Enzymes_Baking.asp
I also used notes from my excercise books from England. lol!

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rolf petter



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PostSubject: Re: Enzymes in Industry   Wed Oct 13, 2010 6:02 pm

I chose chymosin or rennin which is found in the stomachs of cows especially calves. It's role is to coagulate milk so it doesn't ran freely, allowing digestion of it. In the industry it is used to make cheeses because it can solidify milk. The demand for chymosin was too high so other types of it are used in todays market, but the traditional rennin is better for cheeses because the alternatives may have side reactions that make the taste change undesirably. About 80% of cheeses are made with genetical made chymosin which bhas been aproved.
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Manu Gómez



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PostSubject: Re: Enzymes in Industry   Wed Oct 13, 2010 7:10 pm

I chose the Papain enzyme. This enzyme is found in the fruit papaya. It is very valuable because of its diverse profits for medicinal purposes. It reduces inflammation and have the Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF), which destroys tumors. Also it is used to treat, by ditroying the bacteria, stomaches dissorders like gastritis and ulcers.
The use of this enzyme has several benefits, such as reducing swelling and fever after surgery, treating cold sores and food allergies,helps to clean away dead tissues from the body, dissolving fats, increase inmune system functions and help those who uffer of lower pack pain, strains and sprains.
Also, papain is used in many beauty products, it helps to keep skin healthy, purguring and softening it.
Eventhought it has many uses and benefits, it also has side effects and as yet, there is no scientific evidene to prove this.


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Miki.S.K



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PostSubject: Re: Enzymes in Industry   Wed Oct 13, 2010 10:18 pm

Glucose insomerase (GI) is an enzyme that catalyses D- glucose into D-fructose and D-xylose into D-xylulose. This enzyme has created an inmense market in the food industry due of its aplication in high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS). HFCS, is an equilibrium mixture of glucose and fructose which is 1.3 times more sweeter than sucrose and serves as sweetener for diabetic people. The convertion of xylose to xylulose serves as a nutritional requiriement in saprophytic bacteria and as a potencial aplication in the making of ethanol (by bioconvertion with hemicellulose), this is a highly new technique and so the exsesive consumption pf HFCS can have some health problems due that this is fermented with Co2+ to be able to make it. The inmobilizing of this enzyme has made it reuseful and so it is less expensive, making it also green. Further research will be able to give more uses to this enzyme but for now it is mainly used as a sweetener for diabetics and for some beverages.

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Luna Marinetti



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PostSubject: Re: Enzymes in Industry   Thu Oct 14, 2010 3:34 pm

The enzyme that I chose was yeast!

Yeast are microscopic molecules that belong to the group of fungi. Yeast is a unicellular fungi that divide by budding and is present in sexual reproduction.Their life depends on the energy from sugar, which they get from eating other living organisms. One of the more well known characteristics is the ability to ferment sugars for the production of ethanol. This process, which occurs anaerobically is called fermentation. This enzyme is very common on plant leaves and flowers, soil and salt water. Yeasts are also found on the skin and in the intestine of warm-blooded animals, (for example- humans, dogs, monkeys, and all mammals, which are warm-blooded) where usually they are parasites. These organisms have been used to ferment the sugars of rice, wheat, and corn to produce alcoholic beverages such as wine which is very common and used in Chile. The fermentation process is initiated by the natural production of yeast in vineyards. Yeast also benefits our body now that it contains 50% of protein and is often taken as a vitamin supplement by also containing a rich amount of vitamin B. Yeast has been very useful especially for food industries and for our health! cherry:
http://www.yeastgenome.org/VL-what_are_yeast.html
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PostSubject: Enzymes   Thu Oct 14, 2010 3:38 pm

Metabolic enzymes are responsible to make the body as the level of the blood, tissues and organs. we use this enzyme to mantain of all body organs and tissues. Metabolic enzymes take protein, fat, and carbohydrates and takes them into the proper balance of working cells and tissues. They also remove waste material from the cells, keeping them clean and healthy.

Digestive enzymes aid in the digestion of food and the absorption and delivery of nutrients throughout the body. The most common digestive enzymes are in the area from the pancreas into the stomach and small intestine. Each enzyme has its especific job in the body. The 3 most important enzymes for digestion are protease, which digests protein; amylase, which digests carbohydrates; and lipase, which digests fat.

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james.kimber96



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PostSubject: Enzyme. Carbohydrase   Thu Oct 14, 2010 4:37 pm

I chose the carbohydrase enzyme.
Carbohydrase is in the Digestive System, it is one of the most common of enzymes.It also catalyzes the hydrolysis of a carbohydrate. It breaks down various things like:
Starch is a very large molecule that contains a lot of glucose. Carbohydrase enzymes break the bond between sugar molecules to make a small sugar molecule that is called maltose. There are different Carbohydrase enzymes like: amylase ( which is found in saliva) and much more.
Thankyou. JAMES KIMBER 8D
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PostSubject: Coenzymes   Thu Oct 14, 2010 5:31 pm

[center]To function properly, food enzymes must also work in cycle with the coenzymes of vitamins and minerals, enzymes could not work if it wasn’t because of the coenzymes which are the ones that maintain the enzymes working (this is necesarry to carry out catalysis) they also have a function as intermidiate carriers of electrons,s pecific atoms or functional groups that are transfered in the overall reaction. Unlike the enzymes in raw plant foods, coenzymes are not completely destroyed by cooking. Unless the enzymes from raw food are present, the coenzymes in the food cannot be utilized to their full potential because of this enzyme a more efficient digestive process and better absorption of food's nutrients is done.

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PostSubject: Re: Enzymes in Industry   Thu Oct 14, 2010 5:35 pm

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Sofi_Fox



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PostSubject: Re: Enzymes in Industry   Thu Oct 14, 2010 7:57 pm

Protease is a type of enzyme which hydrolyzes. To hydrolyze is too breakdown, protease breaksdown various bonds of peptide. Each type of protease has a specific kind of peptide bonds it breaks. Examples of protease include: fungal protease, pepsin, trypsin, chymotrypsin, papain, bromelain, and subtiliskn. Protease when aken with an empty stomach, takes a powerful function.
It is a tremendous all natural blood enhancer, able to break down protein invaders in the blood supply, so that your natural immune system can destroy them.Parasites, fungal forms, and bacteria are protein. Viruses are nucleic acids covered by a protein film. Since protease can break down undigested protein, cellular debris, and toxins in the blood, it frees up the immune system for the more important work of destroying the unnatural invaders like bacteria.

http://www.enzymeessentials.com/HTML/proteases.html

http://www.healthynewage.com/pure.html


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PostSubject: Re: Enzymes in Industry   Thu Oct 14, 2010 8:46 pm

Food enzymes are derived solely from raw fruits, vegetables, and supplemental sources. Like digestive enzymes, they enable the body to digest the food by breaking down the various nutrients -- proteins, fats, carbohydrates, and vitamins and minerals - into smallest compounds that the body can absorb. They are absolutely essential in maintaining optimal health.
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PostSubject: Re: Enzymes in Industry   Fri Oct 15, 2010 5:14 pm

Rennet
Milk contains proteins, specifically caseins, that maintain its liquid form. Proteases are enzymes that are added to milk during cheese production, to hydrolyze caseins, specifically kappa casein, which stabilizes micelle formation preventing coagulation. Rennet and rennin are general terms for any enzyme used to coagulate milk. Technically rennet is also the term for the lining of a calf's fourth stomach. The most common enzyme isolated from rennet is chymosin. Chymosin can also be obtained from several other animal, microbial or vegetable sources, but indigenous microbial chymosin (from fungi or bacteria) is ineffective for making cheddar and other hard cheeses. Limited supplies of calf rennet have prompted genetic engineering of microbial chymosin by cloning calf prochymosin genes into bacteria. Bioengineered chymosin may be involved in production of up to 70% of cheese products. While use of bioengineered enzymes spares the lives of calves, it presents ethics issues for those opposed to eating foods prepared with GEMs.
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PostSubject: metabolic enzyme   Wed Oct 20, 2010 6:55 pm

Metabolic enzymes are responsible for running the body at the level of the blood, tissues and organs. They are required for the growth of cells and repair and maintenance of all the body's organs and tissues. Metabolic enzymes take protein, fat, and carbohydrates and transform them into the proper balance of working cells and tissues. They also remove worn-out material from the cells, keeping them clean and healthy.

In the production of metabolic enzymes the pancreas is a vital organ. The pancreas produces many metabolic enzymes which perform a wide variety of functions including the destruction and removal of toxins within the body. Metabolic enzymes also aid in the production of energy and are connected to every working organ within the human body and also aid in the repair of damaged and decaying tissues. Metabolic enzymes help the body in the absorption of oxygen, assisting in the body’s ability to deliver it to the needed organs and cells. Enzymes aid in some of the following functions:
- Purification of the blood.

- Assisting and strengthening of the immune system.

- Aiding the body in the breaking down fats.

- Enzymes aid in the lowering of cholesterol levels and triglyceride levels thus reducing the body’s risk of other health complications.

- Enhance the digestive process.

- Aid in the functioning of the endocrine system and glands and many oher functions.


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PostSubject: GOOD   Wed May 23, 2012 3:09 am

Thanks for your sh cheers aring
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