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PostSubject: Enzymes in Industry   Mon Sep 20, 2010 9:09 pm

We will see that many different enzymes are produced in our digestive systems to help with the breakdown of food. Enzymes are also used by humans during many different industrial processes, for example, in the pharmaceutical, food and clothing industries.

Your task is to firstly read pages 34-35 of the textbook for some background information. Then you must describe the use of one enzyme in industry. You must not choose the same enzyme as anyone else in your class so please check all other responses before you begin.

Please write a summary of at leat 150 words on this enzyme. You must include information about;

- What the enzyme does
- Where the enzyme comes from
- The advantages of using this enzyme


You must provide a reference for your main source of information. This must not be Wikipedia!!!

Good Luck and remember that this material may be tested.

DUE DATE: Your second class during week 29 (11/10/10)[u] Question
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Francisca Messina



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PostSubject: Enzymes In Detergent   Thu Oct 07, 2010 8:41 pm

A product of enzyme biotechnology you might use everyday in your own home..
With time, research, and improved protein methods, many enzymes have been genetically modified to be more effective at the temperatures, pH, or under other manufacturing conditions typically inhibitory to enzyme activity, making them more efficient for industrial or home applications.

Detergents
Enzymes have been used in many kinds of detergents for over 30 years.Traditional use of enzymes in laundry detergents involved those that degrade proteins causing stains, such as those found in grass stains, red wine and soil. Lipases are another useful class of enzymes that can be used to dissolve fat stains and clean grease traps or other fat-based cleaning applications.
Currently, a popular area of research is the investigation of enzymes that can tolerate, or even have higher activities, in hot and cold temperatures. The search for thermotoleran enzymes has spanned the globe. These enzymes are especially desirable for improving laundry processes in hot water cycles and/or at low temperatures for washing colors and darks. They are also useful for industrial processes where high temperatures are required. Recombinant enzymes (engineered proteins) are being sought using different DNA technologies such as site-directed mutagenesis and DNA shuffling.
In general, enzyme detergents remove protein from clothes soiled with blood, milk, sweat, grass, etc. far more effectively than non-enzyme detergents. However, using modern bleaching and brightening agents, the difference between looking clean and being clean may be difficult to discern. At present only proteases and amylases are commonly used. Although a wide range of lipases is known, it is only very recently that lipases suitable for use in detergent preparations
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Cristian.Baeza



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PostSubject: homework   Mon Oct 11, 2010 3:37 pm

One of many types of enzymes used in industries are lipases which are used when we prepare cheese. What it does is it breaks down milk fats which give characteristic flavours to cheeses. For example stronger cheeses like the Italian cheese Romana are prepared using lipases. The flavour comes out from the free fatty acids produced when milk fats are hydrolyzed*. Animal lipases come from calfs and lambs and microbial lipases come from fungui but the preferred to use in cheese are the animal lipases because they give a more desired cheese flavour, because animal lipases are very specific in which fats they hydrolyze making a more specific flavour. The lipases that come from fungi are also used in cheese making only they are less specific in what fats they hydrolyze making the cheese either soapy or with no flavour at all. Usually it’s used in cheaper cheeses while the more expensive cheeses that are the ones very rich in flavours are made with animal lipases so practically the price of cheeses are varied by the enzymes it uses.

*hydrolization: It’s a chemical reaction which when water molecules split into hydrogen cations and hydroxide anions making some parts of the fats go with the hydrogen cations and other parts of the fats go with the hydroxide anions causing the fat to split.

http://biotech.about.com/od/casestudies/a/dairyenzymes.htm
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T7W-3RJG2G5-5&_user=10&_coverDate=04/14/1997&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=search&_origin=search&_
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martin_v
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PostSubject: enzymes in industries   Mon Oct 11, 2010 6:51 pm

The enzyme I chose is yeast. This is most commonly used in the wine industry (which we have lots in Chile). The action of this enzyme is to transform the glucose of the grape into ethanol and carbon dioxide, this action is called fermentation. glucose ----> ethanol + crarbon dioxide. C6H12O6(aq)-----> 2 C2H5OH(aq) + 2 CO2(g).
This enzyme works best if yeast and glucose solution is warm, in the optimum temperature.
Yeast is found all around us, anywhere you can find plant matter. It is a small microorganism classified as fungi. There are lots of types of yeast. It si used because yeast is very fast, it takes some time (minutes to hours) to decide if the environment is apropiate to work,if it is, yeast can reproduce amazingly in favourable conditions. This rate, at least for a period, is typically one logarithmic unit per two hours, meaning that 1 yeast cell can theoretically become 8 in six hours, 64 in 12 hours, 512 in 18 hours, and 4096 in 24 hours. Luckily, when their population reaches 150,000,000 per milliliter of host liquid, they settle down and maintain a relatively steady population. It is favourable to use yeast because it uses up all oxygen and all nutrients,giving better products.

biography
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J M Concha



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PostSubject: Protease   Tue Oct 12, 2010 7:32 pm

Protease is a group of enzymes whose catalytic function is to breakdown bonds of proteins.They are also called proteolytic enzymes or proteinases. They are also called proteolytic enzymes or proteinases. the advantages of using proteases is mainly to wash food from something, because it breaks protein. So it is mainly used in laundry detergents. Stain is removed with protease. The enzymes that regulate everything from liver function to the immune system are enzymes
Proteases, being themselves proteins, are known to be cleaved by other protease molecules, sometimes of the same variety. This may be an important method of regulation of protease activity.
The proteases are classified in 2 groups: Standard (Proteases are currently classified into six broad groups: Serine proteases, Threonine proteases, Cysteine proteases, Aspartate proteases, Metalloproteases, Glutamic acid proteases)
And By optimal pH (which depends if the protease is acid, alkali or neutral)
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Max.Edwards



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PostSubject: Enzymes in Industry,    Tue Oct 12, 2010 8:01 pm

In the process of producing beer, yeasts are needed to accelerate the process of fermentation. This yeast consumes the sugar from grains, particularly barley.

The yeast saccharomyces is used in the process of “mashing”, where the principal enzymatic changes occur. It is the process of heating the grain mixed with water at control temperature for activating the enzymes that convert starch to fermentable sugar. This process is called saccharification. This accelerates the process of “mashing” to break down more quickly the starch into sugar.

Also the enzymes can determine the type of beer you are producing; this is when you apply them during fermentation. For example, the yeast cerevisiae is used to make “ales” that is a top fermenting strain, on the other hand uvarum is used to make “lagers” that is a bottom fermenting strain.

Enzymes are useful in industry because of their highly capacity of breaking or combing substances.
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Alberto Calderon



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PostSubject: Re: Enzymes in Industry   Thu Oct 14, 2010 3:39 pm

Pepsin is an enzyme in the stomach. The job of this enzyme is to break down proteins into smaller pieces. This makes much more easer and much most faster the digestion system. This enzyme is in an inactive form, but it is activated by stomach acids. It is produced by the mucosal lining of the stomach .Pepsin is one of three principal protein-degrading, or proteolytic, enzymes in the digestive system, the other two being chymotrypsin and trypsin . During the process of digestion the three enzymes work breaking different type of amino acids, this helps to beak down the proteins.
For proteins to be active they have to be surrounded in an atmosphere with a PH of 1 to 3 i the scale. Pepsin is also used in the preparation of cheese and other protein-containing foods.
The effect of antacids in pepsin is that the antacid neutralize the pepsin making them denatured because the antacid is on a 6 or 7 PH, this makes the pepsin molecule stop working. The advantage of having this enzyme is that the process of digestion is faster with pepsin because just like I said before it beak down protein molecules.

http://www.greatvistachemicals.com/biochemicals/pepsin.html

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Alberto Calderon



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PostSubject: Re: Enzymes in Industry   Thu Oct 14, 2010 3:39 pm

Pepsin is an enzyme in the stomach. The job of this enzyme is to break down proteins into smaller pieces. This makes much more easer and much most faster the digestion system. This enzyme is in an inactive form, but it is activated by stomach acids. It is produced by the mucosal lining of the stomach .Pepsin is one of three principal protein-degrading, or proteolytic, enzymes in the digestive system, the other two being chymotrypsin and trypsin . During the process of digestion the three enzymes work breaking different type of amino acids, this helps to beak down the proteins.
For proteins to be active they have to be surrounded in an atmosphere with a PH of 1 to 3 i the scale. Pepsin is also used in the preparation of cheese and other protein-containing foods.
The effect of antacids in pepsin is that the antacid neutralize the pepsin making them denatured because the antacid is on a 6 or 7 PH, this makes the pepsin molecule stop working. The advantage of having this enzyme is that the process of digestion is faster with pepsin because just like I said before it beak down protein molecules.

http://www.greatvistachemicals.com/biochemicals/pepsin.html

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PostSubject: METABOOLIC ENZYMEES!   Thu Oct 14, 2010 5:41 pm

Metabolic Enzymes (:

Metabolic enzymes refer to lots substances inside the body that carry out a variety of functions. In fact, they are a major component in the reproduction and replacement of cells. These cells are not limited to any specific area inside our body, but are one of the most important cells in the systems and functions.

The pancreas is the primary organ which produces and releases metabolic enzymes into the body. These enzymes are responsible for taking out toxins from the body, for helping to produce energy, and for ensuring the correct function of every organ. One of the most important functions of metabolic enzymes happens in the blood. It is the job of enzymes to process nutrients provided by food and distribute them to every part of the body.
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PostSubject: Enzymes   Thu Oct 14, 2010 8:12 pm

The use of enzymes in textile production has highly increased because of its eco-friendly characteristics, this has permited to reduce pollution created by this process. Enzymes are useful in a variaty of processes in the textile industry such as bleaching, dyeing, de-sizing and scouring. Before this, acid and alkalis were used instead of enzyme to break down starch.

For example, amylases are used to soften starched clothes, this, later permits the fabric to be dyed. Other enzymes are also used to produce leather.
Enzymes are used to enhance the preparation of cotton for weaving, reduce impurities, minimize “pulls” in fabric, or as pre-treatment before dying to reduce rinsing time and improve colour quality. This steps reduce costs associated with the production process, and consumption of natural resources (water, electricity, fuels), while also improving the quality of the final textile product.

These are some of the enzymes used in the textile industry: Amylases, cellulases, glucanases, proteinases.
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PostSubject: Re: Enzymes in Industry   Thu Oct 14, 2010 8:41 pm

Some enzymes are used in food and beverages

Historically, humans have been using enzymes for years, in early biotechnological practices, to produce foods, without really knowing it. It was possible to make wine, beer, vinegar, milk and cheeses, for example, because of the enzymes in the yeasts and bacteria that were utilized for making this products. Lipases are used to break down milk fats and give characteristic flavours to cheeses. The enzyme Catalase has found limited use in one particular area of cheese production. Lactase is a glycoside hydrolase enzyme that cuts lactose into it's constituent sugars, galactose and glucose. Milk contains a number of different types of proteins, in addition to the caseins. Milk contains proteins, specifically caseins, that maintain its liquid form

Bio-technology has made it possible to isolate and characterize the specific enzymes responsible for these processes. It has allowed the development of specialized strains for specific uses that improve the flavour and quality of each product. Enzymes can also be used to make the process cheaper and more predictable. Other enzymes reduce the length of time required for aging, help clarify or stabilize the product, or help control alcohol and sugar contents, so the products mantain good for longer time.

For years, enzymes have also been used to turn starch into sugar. Corn and wheat syrups are used throughout the food industry as sweeteners. Using enzyme technology, the production of these sweeteners can be less expensive than using sugarcane sugar. Enzymes have been developed and enhanced using biotechnological methods, for every step of the process.

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PostSubject: Re: Enzymes in Industry   Thu Oct 14, 2010 8:44 pm

The use of enzymes in textile production has increased because of its eco-friendly characteristics, this has permited to reduce pollution created by this process. Textile industry such as dyeing, bleaching, de-sizing and scouring are useful in rhis variety of processes . Know, we use enzyme to break down starch and before they udes acid and alkalis instead of this.
AN EXAMPLE:
to soften starched clothes we use amalyses , it permits the fabric to be dyed. To produce sometimes we use other enzymes.
To enhance the preparation of cotton for weaving, redice impurities, minimize in fabric, or as pre- treatment before dying to improve color quantity or dying to reduce rising time we use enzymes. This steps reduce costs associated with the production process, and consumption of natural resources such as water, electricity, fuels and more, while also improving the quality of the final textile product.


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PostSubject: enzymes   Thu Oct 14, 2010 11:57 pm

in the beer producing process, a special enzyme is needed to accelerate the process of fermentation. This enzyme is called YEAST. This yeast consumes the sugar from grains, particularly barley.

The yeast saccharomyces is used in the process of “mashing”, where the principal enzymatic changes occur. It is the process of heating the grain mixed with water at control temperature for activating the enzymes that convert starch to fermentable sugar. This process is called saccharification. This accelerates the process of “mashing” , so this means that the process of breaking starch into sugar occurs more quickly.

enzymes can also determine the type of beer you are producing; this happens when you use them during fermentation. For example, the yeast cerevisiae is used to make “ales” that is a top fermenting strain, on the other hand uvarum is used to make “lagers” that is a bottom fermenting strain.

Enzymes are useful in industry because of their high capability to combine and break substances.
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catalina gonzalez



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PostSubject: enzymes   Fri Oct 15, 2010 12:01 am

in the beer producing process, a special enzyme is needed to accelerate the process of fermentation. This enzyme is called YEAST. This yeast consumes the sugar from grains, particularly barley.

The yeast saccharomyces is used in the process of “mashing”, where the principal enzymatic changes occur. It is the process of heating the grain mixed with water at control temperature for activating the enzymes that convert starch to fermentable sugar. This process is called saccharification. This accelerates the process of “mashing” , so this means that the process of breaking starch into sugar occurs more quickly.

enzymes can also determine the type of beer you are producing; this happens when you use them during fermentation. For example, the yeast cerevisiae is used to make “ales” that is a top fermenting strain, on the other hand uvarum is used to make “lagers” that is a bottom fermenting strain.

Enzymes are useful in industry because of their high capability to combine and break substances.
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PostSubject: Re: Enzymes in Industry   Fri Oct 15, 2010 10:12 am

Due to the eco-firendly characteristics, the use of enzymes for textile production increased. Textile industry such as dyeing, bleaching, de-sizing and scouring are useful in this variety of processes . Enzymes are now used to break down starch, while before they used acid and bases.
e.g. : amylases soften starched closes and makes dying posible.
To enhance the preparation of cotton for weaving, redice impurities, minimize in fabric, or as pre- treatment before dying to improve color quantity or dying to reduce rising time we use enzymes. This steps reduce costs associated with the production process, and consumption of natural resources such as water, electricity, fuels and more, while also improving the quality of the final textile product.

catalina kychenthal
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elchara



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PostSubject: HIO   Fri Oct 15, 2010 8:43 pm

In the field of biotechnology there are many food science applications that utilize enzymes. In the dairy industry, some enzymes are required for the production of cheeses, yogurt and other dairy products, while others are used in a more specialized fashion to improve texture or flavour.
Lactase is a glycoside hydrolase enzyme that cuts lactose into it's constituent sugars, galactose and glucose. Without sufficient production of lactase enzyme in the small intestine, humans become lactose intolerant, resulting in discomfort (cramps, gas and diarrhea) in the digestive tract upon ingestion of milk products. Lactase is used commercially to prepare lactose-free products, particularly milk, for such individuals. It is also used in preparation of ice cream, to make a creamier and sweeter-tasting product. Lactase is usually prepared from Kluyveromyces sp. of yeast and Aspergillus sp. of fungi.
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Clemente Videla



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PostSubject: Catalase is the enzyme that I chose   Mon Oct 18, 2010 5:19 pm

Catalase. It catalyzes the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen.
Catalase is one of the most potent catalysts known. The reactions it catalyses are crucial to life. Catalase catalyses conversion of Hydrogen Peroxide, a powerful and potentially harmful oxidizing agent, to water and molecular oxygen. Catalase also uses Hydrogen Peroxide to oxidise toxins including Phenols, Formic Acid, Formaldehyde and Alcohols.
The enzyme catalase speeds up the decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide into water and oxygen , It is one of the fastest known enzymes and its turnover number is 6 million, which means the number of substrate molecules which one molecule of the enzyme turns to products per minute. This can be demonstrated by putting a piece of liver into a beaker of Hydrogen Peroxide, the fizzing shows a demonstration of the enzyme in action.

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PostSubject: Re: Enzymes in Industry   Mon Oct 18, 2010 10:25 pm

Enzymes in industry:

For example, you may find enzymes in products that we have produce since at least 8000 years such as bear or wine, of course we didn’t know that there was an enzymatic process in it, but early ago we discovered that the process that is made to produce alcohol in wine is called fermentation, it is when the yeast (external part of the grape) feeds on the sugars in the juice producing alcohol. Then the enzymes in yeast break down glucose into alcohol.
Enzyme used in food:
Lactase:
Lactase is a enzyme that cuts lactose into sugars, glucose. Without the necessary production of lactase enzyme in the small intestine, humans become lactose intolerant, which produces diarrhea, it makes you intolerant to milk products. Lactase is used commercially to prepare lactose-free products, particularly milk, for such individuals. It is also used in preparation of ice cream, to make a creamier and sweeter tasting product.

Internet Sources:
http://biotech.about.com/od/casestudies/tp/dairyenzymes.htm
http://www.absorblearning.com/chemistry/demo/units/LR1507.html
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PostSubject: Carbonic Anhydrase   Tue Oct 19, 2010 7:25 pm

It is found in red blood cells where it catalyzes the reaction.It enables red blood cells to transport carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs.One molecule of carbonic anhydrase can process one million molecules of CO2 each second. The Ecuation is CO2 + H2O ↔ H+ + HCO3−. It transformes the carbon dioxide into carbonic acid to then transform it back again into carbon dioxide. It is extremly quick. Whithought this enzyme these process will be capable but it will be very much slower.
Page taken:
http://www.pdb.org/pdb/static.do?p=education_discussion/molecule_of_the_month/pdb49_1.html
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Gerardo
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PostSubject: Forum Answer   Tue Oct 19, 2010 9:50 pm

The one I’m going to explain is one that most people already have heard of or that they know. It is known that humans have been using enzymes for many centuries, they have used it in early biotechnological practices, the ones who did this did this sometimes also created different foods, although most never knew they did. Some of the food and beverages they could make are wine, beer, vinegar and cheeses because of some enzymes contained in yeasts and bacteria that they have used. Now more advanced technology has made it possible to isolate the enzyme that causes this. Thanks to this we can now modify the flavor and also the quality of the food. It can also control the sugar and alcohol levels, and the aging time. Using enzyme technology we can now make sweeteners less expensive. It also allows the transformation of starch into sugar, we also use corn and wheat syrup as sweeteners. Cool
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PostSubject: Re: Enzymes in Industry   Today at 5:08 am

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