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 Enzymes in Industry

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PostSubject: Enzymes in Industry   Mon Sep 20, 2010 9:09 pm

We will see that many different enzymes are produced in our digestive systems to help with the breakdown of food. Enzymes are also used by humans during many different industrial processes, for example, in the pharmaceutical, food and clothing industries.

Your task is to firstly read pages 34-35 of the textbook for some background information. Then you must describe the use of one enzyme in industry. You must not choose the same enzyme as anyone else in your class so please check all other responses before you begin.

Please write a summary of at leat 150 words on this enzyme. You must include information about;

- What the enzyme does
- Where the enzyme comes from
- The advantages of using this enzyme


You must provide a reference for your main source of information. This must not be Wikipedia!!!

Good Luck and remember that this material may be tested.

DUE DATE: Your second class during week 29 (11/10/10)[u] Question
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M.Mingo



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PostSubject: Renin enzyme   Mon Sep 27, 2010 10:44 pm

The enzyme i am going to talk about is the Renin enzyme.
Renin enzymes are enzymes secreted by the kidney (and also, possibly, by the placenta), Renin is release by the kidney when you have decreased salt (sodium levels) or low blood volume.
The most important work that Renin do is to regulate the blood presure. The specific steps of how Renin enzyme is release from the kidney is like this:
1.Blood comes to the kidney by a tube named renal perfusion, for example because the person is blidding so the blood preasure goes down
2.In the kidney they are thousands of nephrons that resive the blood by the nephron artium, then the smooth muscles of the nephron artium become altered, the group of altered mucles in the nephron artium wall is called pokision. So when pokision apears in the nephron artium, Renin is release and mayor the blood will flow
3.The lower the blood preasure is the more Renin enzyme is produced
The advantage of the human body of having this type of enzyme is that if you make an internal or external injury and you start to loose blood out of your system, the kidney releases Renin enzymes and regulates the blood presure.

Source:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=puM5WCvOBdU&feature=related
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0BIfUQNn0zE&feature=related
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1755-6686.2010.00166.x/full
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/498133/renin


Last edited by M.Mingo on Wed Sep 29, 2010 8:33 pm; edited 2 times in total
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Consu Sepulveda



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PostSubject: CATALASE (words:146)   Tue Sep 28, 2010 9:40 pm

CATALASE
In this forum post I'm going to talk about the common and very useful and needed enzyme called catalase. This enzyme is an antioxidant enzyme that, like superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase, helps the body to convert hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen (the formula for this decomposition can be seen below):
2 H2O2 ------> 2 H2O + O2
Hydrogen peroxide is produced as a consequence of oxidative cellular metabolism and can be converted to the highly reactive hydroxyl radical via transition metals, this radical being able to damage a wide variety of molecules within a cell, leading to oxidative stress and cell death. Hydrogen peroxide also makes your hair go gray.
Catalase is found in almost all living organisms, specially in mammalian tissues.
Catalase, as an antioxidant, has the same advantages that any other antioxidant. This advantages are the following:
- Antioxidants are known to limit the effect of oxidation in the body induced by free radicals, or to put it more succinctly, antioxidants shield you from free radical damage.


Sources:
http://www.articlesnatch.com/Article/Advantages-Of-Antioxidants/293793
http://www.worldlingo.com/ma/enwiki/es/Catalase
http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/DisplayIproEntry?ac=IPR002226
http://www.vitaminstuff.com/catalase.html
http://dsc.discovery.com/news/2009/03/02/gray-hair.html
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/99062/catalase
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caro rios



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PostSubject: Re: Enzymes in Industry   Wed Sep 29, 2010 8:35 pm

Lipase
The enzyme i am going to talk about is the lipase enzyme. This enzyme is used in various types of industries, such as biological washing powders and food production.

*Food production: Lipases are used to break down milk fats. They are also used to give different flavors to cheeses. Cheeses with stong flavors, such as the italian cheese Romano, are prepared using lipases. The flavor comes from the free fatty acids produced when milk fats are hydrolyzed. Animal lipases can be obtained from calfs and lambs while microbial lipase is derived by fermentation with the fungal species Mucor meihei.
Lipase that come from fungi helps chocolate coverings to flow.

*Biological washing powders: Lipase, as protease, can remove the most difficult stains, as lipids and proteins. The advantage of using these washing powders is that they can work at lower temperatures, so less hot water is needed and clothes donĀ“t shrink. For example, stains in leather can be removed with lipase.

1. http://biotech.about.com/od/casestudies/a/dairyenzymes.htm
2. http://www.worldlingo.com/ma/enwiki/es/Lipase#Industrial_Uses
3. http://www.lsbu.ac.uk/biology/enztech/detergent.html
4. http://www.ias.ac.in/currsci/jul10/articles18.htm
5. Textbook
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jaime.quirante



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PostSubject: Re: Enzymes in Industry   Thu Sep 30, 2010 10:05 pm

PROTEASE
The enzyme I am going talk about is protease (also termed peptidase or proteinase). Protease breaks down proteins and in the food industry is used to many sort of things, such as traditionally the production of cheese (obomasum), also you can find the type of protease "Carica papaya" that is used to tenderize meats.

Another industry use for protease is the production of detergents, protease can remove the difficult stains by braking the food particles into smaller parts. One of the most important advantages of washing with "proteased" detergents is that you dont require hot temperatures for thr protease to start breaking down food, and that makes both, environmental and more economic.

Sources:
http://www.ehow.com/facts_5511349_uses-protease.html
http://www.studentsguide.in/animal-biotechnology/enzyme-technology/uses-of-proteases-in-food-industry.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proteases_(medical_and_related_uses)
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nicole s
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PostSubject: Amylase   Sun Oct 03, 2010 5:27 pm

AMYLASE
Amylase is an enzyme that is produced in the pancreas and the glands that make saliva, but this enzyme may be released in greater quantities into the bloodstream if the pancreas has an inflammation. It is a very important member in digestion as it breaks down starch into sugar. Amylase contains sucrose and glucose which are separated to deliver nutrients into the bloodstream. Amylase can be very useful to humans because you can take an amylase test to check the amount of this enzyme in the blood to detect any pancreatic disorders, if it is too high, it means that the pancreas is diseased, but the test can also be taken to see if a treatment again a pancreatic disease is working or if there is an inflammation in the salivary glands. It is also very useful as well for clothing industries because it helps to soften starch in the fabric.

Sources:
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nicole smith



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PostSubject: Amylase   Sun Oct 03, 2010 5:33 pm

AMYLASE
Amylase is an enzyme that is produced in the pancreas and the glands that make saliva, but this enzyme may be released in greater quantities into the bloodstream if the pancreas has an inflammation. It is a very important member in digestion as it breaks down starch into sugar. Amylase contains sucrose and glucose which are separated to deliver nutrients into the bloodstream. Amylase can be very useful to humans because you can take an amylase test to check the amount of this enzyme in the blood to detect any pancreatic disorders, if it is too high, it means that the pancreas is diseased, but the test can also be taken to see if a treatment again a pancreatic disease is working or if there is an inflammation in the salivary glands. It is also very useful as well for clothing industries because it helps to soften starch in the fabric.

Sources:
http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-amylase.htm
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003464.htm
http://www.webmd.com/digestive-disorders/amylase-17444
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morales.dude



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PostSubject: Re: Enzymes in Industry   Mon Oct 04, 2010 11:24 pm

The enzyme I chose is Papain. This is an enzyme which comes from Papaya, its 3D structure consists of 2 distinct structural domains in these domains the active zone is present. The goal of this enzyme is to break down peptide bonds, (A covalent chemical bond formed between two molecules when the carboxyl group of one molecule reacts with the amine group of the other molecule, thereby releasing a molecule of water)
It's used as a meat tenderizer because it destroys some meat fibers, its also used as a home medicine to treat stings (wasps, jellyfish even sometimes stingrays). It's also known to eliminate traces (active chemical) of marijuana in urine. tongue
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mojeda



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PostSubject: Lactase   Mon Oct 11, 2010 7:35 pm

The enzyme I am going to talk about is Lactase. It is an glycoside hydrolase enzyme (generate two smaller sugars) produced by the small intestine. Our levels of lactase are far higher in our chilhood since our diet contains a lot of milk but as we grow up our levels of this enzyme drop. Lactase main function is to cut lactose in galactose and glucose, its main sugars, making it smaller and more digestable. Lactase is used in the industry to prepare lactose free products for individuals who are lactose intolerant (do not have enough amount of lactase in their body), and making ice cream, giving it a softer and sweeter taste.The advantages of using lactase are (apart from lactose intolerant products) avoidance of crystallisation in certain applications, sweeter taste without extra calories, it is easy to digest and it improves scoopability in ice-cream.

http://www.dsm.com/le/en_US/maxilact/html/benefits.htm
http://www.lactose-intolerance.co.uk/lactase.php
http://biotech.about.com/od/casestudies/tp/dairyenzymes.htm
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agustin planella



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PostSubject: Re: Enzymes in Industry   Tue Oct 12, 2010 8:36 pm

The enzyme i choose is pepsin because i like it and it is very interesting
pepsin is an enzyme in the stomach that begins the digestion of proteins by splitting them into smaller pieces. It is a gastric protease; pepsin is secreted in an inactive form, pepsinogen, which is activated by stomach acid. enzyme produced in the mucosal lining of the stomach that acts to degrade protein.It is most active at pH 2-4. It is permanently inactivated above pH 6. produced in the mucosal lining of the stomach is one of three principal protein-degrading, or proteolytic, enzymes in the digestive system.
www.greatvistachemicals.com/biochemicals/pepsin.html
http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/pepsin.aspx
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/450873/pepsin
www.jtbaker.com/msds/englishhtml/p1550.htm
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andonegumucio



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PostSubject: enzymes in industry   Thu Oct 14, 2010 8:40 pm

Amylases

Amylases isolated from bacteria, fungi, pancreas and malt are used in textile industry as softening agents for starched clothes. Starch is often added to cotton fibers as a stiffening agent, before weaving the fiber into cloth.

Since, a starched cloth does not take good color; the cloth is to be detached before dyeing it. This is done with an amylase preparation, which hydrolyses starch).
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raimundo
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PostSubject: Re: Enzymes in Industry   Thu Oct 14, 2010 9:13 pm

The enzyme I will talk about is the enzyme Chymosin. Chymosin is an enzyme produced by chief cells in the stomach. Its role in digestion is to coagulate milk. A very important process for young animals because if the milk was not coagulated it would quickly flow through the stomach and the initial digestion of its proteins could not occur. Chymosin is used in the cheese industry to turn milk in to cheese. They usually extract the Chymosin from frozen calf stomachs. But because there was no sufficient amount of calves a new way of producing chymosin through genetically modified fungi is now the most commonly used. Chymosin breaks down the milk proteins which causes them to clump together separating from the watery whey. This coagulates the milk making it turn from a liquid to a solid. Chymosin is very important in the production of cheese because if milk is not coagulated it can not turn into cheese.
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raimundo
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PostSubject: Re: Enzymes in Industry   Thu Oct 14, 2010 9:23 pm

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raimundo
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PostSubject: Re: Enzymes in Industry   Thu Oct 14, 2010 9:29 pm

The enzyme I will talk about is the enzyme Chymosin. Chymosin is an enzyme produced by chief cells in the stomach. Its role in digestion is to coagulate milk. A very important process for young animals because if the milk was not coagulated it would quickly flow through the stomach and the initial digestion of its proteins could not occur. Chymosin is used in the cheese industry to turn milk in to cheese. They usually extract the Chymosin from frozen calf stomachs. But because there was no sufficient amount of calves a new way of producing chymosin through genetically modified fungi is now the most commonly used. Chymosin breaks down the milk proteins which causes them to clump together separating from the watery whey. This coagulates the milk making it turn from a liquid to a solid. Chymosin is very important in the production of cheese because if milk is not coagulated it can not turn into cheese.

sources:
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fran.valenzuela



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PostSubject: Re: Enzymes in Industry   Fri Oct 15, 2010 11:59 pm

CELLULASE
Cellulase is an enzyme capable of removing stains. When the enzyme cellulase is added to detergent it has the following effects:
Colour Brightening: When clothes made of cotton have been washed several times, they usually get a "fluffy" look and the colours become duller. This effect happens because the formation of microfibrils that become partly detached from the main fibres. The light falling on the garment is reflected back to a greater extent giving the impression that the colour is duller. These fibrils, can be degraded by the cellulase enzyme, restoring a smooth surface to the fibre and restoring the cloth to its original colour.
Softening: Since it removes the microfibrils the fabric gets softer.
Soil removal: Some dirt particles are trapped in the microfibrils and are removed when the microfibrils are removed by cellulase.
This enzyme is very useful because it has the property to modify the structure of cellulose fibre on cotton
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ignaciootero



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PostSubject: Re: Enzymes in Industry   Sun Oct 17, 2010 11:57 am

bromelain: Breaks down proteins found in plants and animals. It can help the body to fight cancer, improve circulation, and treat inflammation. After a musculoskeletal injury it can reduce inflammation as well as, or even better than, any anti-inflammatory drug. Bromlain is said to improve the effect of some antibiotics. It assists in the absorption of nutrients from foods and supplements, reduces swelling after dental surgery, and helps to prevent the narrowing of arteries which contributes to heart problems.
Bromine is found naturally in the stens of pineapples, when having stomach problems bromelain helps with the absorption.

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PostSubject: Re: Enzymes in Industry   Today at 8:37 am

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